Pavement Production Rate

Available work area < 60,000m2

m2
Working width < 40m

m
Location Rural = 1.0 Small City = 0.85 Big City = 0.75

%
Major pavement items Production Rate Unit
Lime-Treated Sub-grade 0 m2/d
Subbase production rate 0 m3/d
Basecource production rate 0 m3/d
Finishing basecource production rate 0 m2/d
Hot Mix Asphalt Base 0 Ton
Hot Mix Asphalt Surface 0 Ton
Concrete Paving 0 m2/d

Tunnel boring and pipe jacking

Bore diameter

m
Material strength

MPa
Rock – Unconfined uniaxial compressive strength qu (MPa)
Engine

kw
Tunnel boring machine (TBM) drilling producivity*
Drilling producivity only 0.00 m/shift 10hr shift
** As a rule of thamb 1/3 of the drilling production rate, equates to the total installation production rate
Indicative boring cycle times References
Excavation 33.3 % Howarth, 1981
Pipe installation 10 % Bruland, 1998
Jacking speed 20 % Cheema, 1999
Locomotive Travel Time 6.7 % Gong and Zhao, 2009
Drill repairs and maintenance 30 %
Production rates relative to TBM selection m/shift m/day m/week m/month
Total MTBM productivity per shift (Pipe jacking) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Gripper TBM for hard rock 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Slurry TBM (Earth Pressure Balance) SPT N-value(blows/300mm) to determin Density Index (Relative Density) i.e. kPa = N-value x 2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
It has been well recognized that joints or fractures have an important effect on the TBM performance (Howarth, 1981, Bruland, 1998, Cheema, 1999, Gong and Zhao, 2009). The discontinuities can facilitate rock breakage, because cracks induced by TBM cutters easily develop with the existing discontinuities. On the basis of a large number of case studies, Bruland (1998) concluded that with the decrease of joint spacing, the TBM penetration increases distinctly.
Hard rock cutter disk abrasivity.
Granite 180MPa with high quartz content 55% to 70% 30 m3/disk
Granite 120MPa with high quartz content 55% to 70% 37.3 m3/disk
Granite 120MPa 100 m3/disk
Granite 230MPa with high quartz content 55% to 70% 10 m3/disk
References:

Piling Productivities

 

Bored Piles

CFA Bored Piles

Driven H Piles

Advantages

Bored pile are used to support multi-story building or bridges which can producing heavy vertical loads

They are quick to install and have

no requirement for temporary or permanent casings

Driven piles are driven to a set in variable site conditions to achieve uniform minimum capacity with high reliability

Methodology

Pile drilled / soil removed and replaced with reinforced concrete

Auger drilled into ground and replaced with concrete as the auger is removed

Steel section driven into the ground

Design

Effect on adjacent ground

No displacement of the soil but the potential for relaxation / softening adjacent ground, dependant upon the soil and bore support used

Typically no displacement with good construction controls

Localised densification of loose non-cohesive soils.

Small cross sectional area and hence minimal soil displacement or potential improvement

Typical size ranges

450-2500mm diameter

450 – 1200 mm diameter depths up to 32m

150 – 350 UC’s, UBPs

Capacity

– Shaft friction

Medium

Medium

Medium

– End bearing

Very high with enlarged base

Medium

High

– Structural

Very high structural capacity and

stiffness achievable

Cage insertion can limit tensile

and flexural capacity at depth

Driving stresses often govern the steel section required

Durability

Conventional concrete in the ground design

Permanent liner in highly aggressive conditions

Conventional concrete in the ground design

Sacrificial thickness of steel above

low groundwater level

 Construction

Typical / Plant

Hydraulic or crane mounted piling rig, handling crane, casing, vibro with powerpack and / or drilling support fluid plant

Hydraulic piling rig, concrete pump and possible handling crane

Crane, vibro hammer or hydraulic hammer with powerpack or drop hammer and leaders or guide frame

Piling productivity

16m deep – 600dia @ 2No/day in soft material including a 3m soft rock socket depth. Detailed production rates

16m deep – 600dia @ 11No/day in soft material including a 3m soft rock socket depth

16m deep – 350 UC’s @ 22No/day in soft material

Material to Plant

Concrete, reinforcement cages and method dependant material

Concrete and reinforcement cages

Steel sections

Materials storage

Casing and cage lay down area

Cage lay down area

H pile lay down area

Noise

Machine only unless driven casing

Machine only

Yes, if vibro used hammer used to obtain pile set

Vibration

No, unless driven casing used

No

Yes

Spoil

100% Nett volume

100% Nett volume

None

Other

Plunged columns can be placed into the top of the pile to structural positional tolerances

Fast installation process with real time monitoring systems for construction control and records

Full strength welded splice used at connections

Predrilling can be used to overcome obstructions

Driven Tubes Piles

Precast Concrete Piles

Vibro replacement

Advantages

They are ideally suited for marine and other near shore applications with a very high end bearing capability

Precast driven piles can be environmentally friendly when construct temporary trestles in wetland

Stone piles are a very effective technique, for resolving issues with liquefiable soils, that fall within the typical grain size range

Methodology

Tube driven using external or internal hammer and filled with reinforced concrete

Pre cast section driven into the ground

Soil displaced or removed and replaced with stone

Design

Effect on adjacent ground

Large displacement of plugged tubes resulting in densification of non-cohesive soils and enhanced capacity

Large displacement resulting in densification of non-cohesive soils and enhanced capacity

Large displacement with densification of non-cohesive soils surrounding the stone column which enhances the capacity

Typical size ranges

350 – 750 mm diameter

250 – 600 mm square

600 – 1200 mm diameter

Capacity

– Shaft friction

Medium

Medium

Low

– End bearing

Very high

Very High

Low

– Structural

Tubes can be reinforced concrete filled to enhance capacity

Lifting, driving and jointing can limit capacity

Stone quality & confinement in the soil limit the capacity

Durability

Sacrificial thickness of steel and

internal reinforced concrete

Conventional concrete in the ground design Review potential corrosion at joints

Weathering / degradation of stone typically not an issue

Construction

Typical / Plant

Crane, vibro hammer or hydraulic hammer with powerpack or drop hammer, leaders

or guide frame

Crane, hydraulic hammer with powerpack or drop hammer, leaders or guide frame

Crane, vibro probe with power pack,

water pumps, compressor and front loader

Piling productivity

16m deep – 600mm Dia piles @ 22No/day

16m deep – 300mm square piles @ 20No/day

12m deep @ 6No/day in soft material

Material to Plant

Steel tubes, reinforcement cages and concrete

Precast concrete piles unless manufactured on site

Stone

Materials storage

Tube and cage lay down area

Precast pile lay down / curing area

Stone stockpiles

Noise

Yes if top driven but limited if bottom driven

Yes

Machine only

Vibration

Yes

Yes

Yes

Spoil

None, but ground heave possible

None, but ground heave possible

20 – 100% Nett volume

Other

Predrilling can be used to overcome obstructions Enlarged bases can be formed to enhance capacity

Variable pile founding depth can lead to high wastage levels and jointing expensive

Top feed “Wet” process requires water circulation system and settlement ponds to contain silts

 

 

 

Sheet Pile Wall

Secant Pile Wallblank

Diaphragm Wallblank

Advantages

Sheet piles are best suited for the following applications temporary retaining walls, cofferdams and other temporary structures

This is a permanent solution which provides increased wall stiffness compared to sheet piles  

Diaphragm walls tend to be used for retaining very deep excavations as they can be designed to take very high structural loads

Methodology

Clutched sheet piles driven into position.

A series of piles installed so that they overlap to form a wall.

A series of interlocking reinforced concrete panels.

Construction

Establishment

Cranes, vibros and hammers and / or pile jacking plant

50-60T self erecting hydraulic drilling rigs and handling crane.

50T crane + grab, handling crane,

mud conditioning plant, mud storage

Piling productivity

16m deep – 600mm wide sheet piles @ 22No/day (in clay or sand materials) Detailed production rates

16m deep – 600dia @ 4No/day in soft material including a 3m soft rock socket depth. Detailed production rates

16m deep by 800mm wide @ 14-40m3/day of completed wall per rig  per day

Materials to site

Sheet Piles

Concrete, reinforcement cages

Bentonite, reinforcement cages or concrete panels

Work face access

Plant & Materials delivery

Plant & Materials delivery

Plant materials and pipelines for mud circulation

Noise

Yes, unless jacked in

Machine only

Machine only

Vibration

Yes, unless jacked in

No

No

Spoil

No

100% nett volume

100% nett volume

Product

Wall Movement

Flexible, can be increased with clutched

king piles. More props or anchors can be

used to reduce movements

In-situ wall with ground supported

throughout construction. Very stiff.

Ground supported throughout excavation. Stiffest option given wall thickness

Watertightness

Good with joint treatment

Groundwater control over pile length and satisfactory performance with some seepages

Excellent over full depth of the wall with

waterbar across panel joints.

Connections

Welded below capping beam level

Drilled & grouted bars into piles,

shear & bending capacity possible

Full moment & shear connection via box-out and pull-out bars

Durability

Internal painting and sacrificial

thickness of steel

Conventional concrete in the ground design. Internal lining for long-term seepage

Conventional concrete in the ground design. No internal lining necessary

Load Capacity

Low end bearing capacity

Capacity can be enhanced by increasing the length of some piles

Wall has a large bearing area and individual

panels can be extended

 

 

 

 

Soldier Pile Wallblank

Bored Pile Wallblank

Soilmix/Slurry Wallblank

Advantages

Soldier pile and lagging walls are the most inexpensive systems compared to other retaining walls. They are also very easy and fast to construct

Low cost and speed of construction for temporary and permanent retaining walls and soil support 

Excellent resistance to contaminated groundwater. They have abilityto adapt to ground movements such as earthquakes

Methodology

Constructed using piles timber infill panels

(timber, steel or concrete)

Series of bored piles installed relatively close together with shotcrete arches

Steel or precast concrete elements placed in fluid soilmix / slurry

Construction

Establishment

50-60T self erecting hydraulic drilling rigs and handling crane

50-60T self erecting hydraulic drilling rigs, handling crane and concrete pumps

50T crane + grab / CSM, handling crane / grout plant with screw feed silos, high pressure pumps

Piling productivity

16m deep – 300mm square piles @ 18No/day

16m deep – 600dia @ 4No/day in soft material including a 3m soft rock socket depth. Detailed production rates

16m deep by 800mm wide @ 20-50m3/day of completed wall per rig  per day

Materials to site

Concrete, reinforcement cages, steel or precast concrete panels

Concrete, reinforcement cages

Cement, bentonite, steel or precast concrete panels

Work face access

Plant & Materials delivery

Plant & Materials delivery

Plant, materials and pipeline delivery of slurry

Noise

Yes, if driven sections

Machine only

Machine only

Vibration

Yes, if driven sections

No

No

Spoil

Dependant on installation method

100% nett volume

30%-80% Nett volume

Product

Wall Movement

Ground unsupported allowing relaxation prior placement of panels and backfilling Stiffness depends on structural section

and backfill compaction

Ground unsupported allowing relaxation prior to concrete

Finished product stiff

Ground supported with stiffness dependant on steel section.

Precast panels can increase stiffness.

Watertightness

Permeable with no groundwater control

below excavation. Seepages long term

Permeable until shotcrete in place with no

groundwater control below. Seepages long term

Good temporary performance due to

replacement with CB slurry but some seepages

Connections

Numerous connection options dependant on materials used

Drilled and grouted bars into piles, shear

and bending capacity possible

Welded to steel sections, shear & bending capacity possible.

Durability

Conventional concrete in the ground

design or sacrificial steel thickness given

long term seepage potential

Conventional concrete in ground design

Sacrificial thickness of steel and internal

lining wall for long-term groundwater seepage

Load Capacity

Capacity can be enhanced by increasing the length of piles.

Capacity can be enhanced by increasing the length of some piles.

Capacity limited by penetration of steel beams

 

 

Production Rates / Man-hours

Manpower is labour force, workers’ effort normally quantified in man-hours, man-days etc (units of time, but not to be confused with duration) production rates is an output and could refer to either of:

  • activity quantity per unit of duration, as per BoQ (e.g. m3/d, t/w, piece/h etc)
  • resource quantity per unit of duration, as per resource assignment onto activity acc. to job estimation norms (e.g. manhours/day, equipment-hours/day, material UoM/day)

Activity output in some UoM/planning unit of time (e.g. m3 of excavation per day) is normally determined by “recipe” (e.g. 1 m3 of excavation requires x man-hours of digger labour or y equipment-hours for non-labour, mechanised work). limit resource output = max. Unit/Time determines the number of each resource (workers, machines) required to work concurrently to achieve set workload in set duration.  

The term rate may also refer to price (or cost) for a resource or activity UoM. price/ unit expressed in currency value/ unit (e.g. $/man-hour, $/equipment-hour, $/kg etc)

Vehicle Capacity

Vehicle Capacity 

Material 8 tonne 12 tonne 16 tonne 20 tonne
m3 m3 m3 m3 m3 m3 m3 m3
Insitu Loose Insitu Loose Insitu Loose Insitu Loose
Clay Dry excavated 4.35 5.41 6.52 8.11 8.70 10.81 10.87 13.51
Wet excavated 3.85 4.82 5.77 7.23 7.69 9.64 9.62 12.05
Clay and Gravel Dry 4.82 5.63 7.73 8.45 9.64 11.26 12.05 14.08
Wet 4.35 5.19 6.52 7.79 8.70 10.39 10.87 12.99
Decomposed Rock 75% Rock 25% Earth 2.87 4.08 4.30 6.12 5.73 8.16 7.17 10.20
50% Rock 50% Earth 3.51 4.65 5.26 6.98 7.02 9.30 8.77 11.63
25% Rock 75% Earth 4.08 5.10 6.12 7.64 8.16 10.19 10.20 12.74
Earth Wet excavated 3.96 5.00 5.94 7.50 7.92 10.00 9.90 12.50
Gravel Pitrun 3.69 4.15 5.53 6.22 7.37 8.29 9.21 10.36
Dry 4.73 5.30 7.10 7.95 9.47 10.59 11.83 13.24
Sand Dry, loose 5.00 5.63 7.50 8.45 10.00 11.26 12.50 14.08
Wet 3.85 4.35 5.77 6.52 7.69 8.69 9.62 10.87
Sand and Gravel   Dry 4.15 4.65 6.22 6.98 8.29 9.30 10.36 11.63
Wet 3.59 3.96 5.38 5.94 7.17 7.92 8.97 9.90
Stone Crushed 3.00 5.00 4.49 7.50 5.99 10.00 7.49 12.50
Top Soil 5.84 8.42 8.76 12.63 11.68 16.84 14.59 21.05

Excavators Load Cycles

Production Estimating Table—Uncorrected, Estimated Production in Loose Cubic Metres/Hour

Est. Cycle Time in Seconds Bucket Payload (Heaped Bucket Capacity—Loose Cubic Metres Est Cycles/ Hour
0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.5
12.0 60 90 150 210 270 300
13.3 54 81 135 189 243 297 351 405 458 513 567 621 675 729 783 837 891 945 270
15.0 48 72 120 168 216 264 312 380 408 456 504 552 600 648 696 744 792 840 240
17.1 42 63 105 147 189 231 273 315 357 399 441 483 525 567 609 651 693 735 210
20.0 36 54 90 126 162 198 234 270 306 342 378 414 450 486 522 558 544 630 180
24.0 30 45 75 105 135 165 195 225 225 285 315 345 375 405 435 465 495 525 150
30.0 24 36 60 84 108 132 156 180 204 228 252 276 300 324 348 372 398 420 120
35.0 20 31 51 71 92 112 133 153 173 194 214 235 255 275 296 315 337 357 102
40.0 81 99 117 135 153 171 189 207 225 243 261 279 297 315 90
45.0 133 148 164 179 195 211 226 242 257 273 78
Production = (Estimated Production in m3 Loose Per Hour) x (Bucket Fill Factor) x
= (Work Time Per Hour) = m3 Loose/Hour

Density and Load Factors

Description  Item
Plant Constants
The tables given hereafter are a guide only and apart from “Trucks and Haulage”, are based on information given in the Reference Handbook issued by the “Caterpillar Tractor Co”. All plant references are to “Caterpillar” equipment.
Density and Load Factors

Whilst measured quantities are generally ‘in situ’ or ‘in place’ quantities, the actual quantity to be removed and/or spread and levelled is, in practical terms, the ‘loose’ volume.

The following table indicates the approximate density (weight) and load factor of common materials.

Approximate Density and Load Factor of Common Materials

 

Density and Load Factors

Material State of Material Density Density
Insitu kg/m3 Load Factor Loose kg/m3
Clay Dry excavated 1,840 0.81 1,480
Wet excavated 2,080 0.8 1,660
Clay and Gravel Dry 1,660 0.71 1,420
Wet 1,840 0.9 1,540
Decomposed Rock 75% Rock, 25% Earth 2,790 0.7 1,960
50% Rock, 50% Earth 2,280 0.75 1,720
25% Rock, 75% Earth 1,960 0.8 1,570
Earth Wet excavated 2,020 0.79 1,600
Gravel Pitrun 2,170 0.89 1,930
Dry 1,690 0.89 1,510
Sand Dry, loose 1,600 0.89 1,420
Wet 2,080 0.89 1,840
Sand and Gravel Dry 1,930 0.89 1,720
Wet 2,230 0.91 2,020
Stone Crushed 2,670 0.6 1,600
Top Soil 1,370 0.7 950

Tunneling NATM

Task / Description Slow   Ave   Fast    Units
 Standard Advance Method, used on tunnels with max diameter –   7.0  –    m
 Half Face Advance Method, used on tunnels with max diameter –   10.0  –    m
 Double side Drift Advance Method, used on tunnels with diameter over –   10.0  –    m
 Double side Drift Advance Method, used on tunnels with diameter over –   10.0  –    m
 Excavation, London Clay, internal diameter under 7.0m 2.5  2.9  3.2   m/day
 Excavation, London Clay, internal diameter 7.0-10.0m 1.5  2.0  2.5   m/day
 Excavation, London Clay, internal diameter over 10.0m 1.0  1.3  1.5   m/day
 Excavation, Woolwich/Reading Beds, internal diameter 2.0-7.0m 1.5  1.8  2.0   m/day
 Excavation, Woolwich/Reading Beds, internal diameter 7.0-10.0m –   1.5  –    m/day
 Excavation, Woolwich/Reading Beds, internal diameter over 10.0m –   1.0  1.5   m/day
 Excavation, London Clay, Inclined Tunnels, diameter 2.0-7.0m 1.5  2.0  3.2   m/day
 Excavation, London Clay, Inclined Tunnels, diameter 7.0-10.0m 0.5  1.0  2.2   m/day
 Excavation, London Clay, Vertical Shafts, diameter 2.0-9.0m 1.0  1.5  2.2   m/day
 Excavation, London Clay, Vertical Shafts, diameter 9.0-15.0m 0.5  1.0  2.6   m/day
 Excavation, London Clay, Circulation Halls 0.8  1.0  1.2   m of circumf/day
 Excavation, London Clay, Junction Excavation –   0.2  –    m/day
 Mucking Capacity, 1 access with 2 crews 190.0  225.0  279.0   m3/day
 Mucking Capacity, 1 access with 4 crews 255.0  300.0  366.0   m3/day
 Mucking Capacity, 2 access with 4 crews 382.0  450.0  549.0   m3/day
 Sprayed Secondary Lining, Tunnels, diameter under 6.5m 2.1  2.5  2.8   m/day
 Sprayed Secondary Lining, Tunnels, diameter over 6.5m 1.5  2.0  2.4   m/day
 Sprayed Secondary Lining, Inclined Tunnels, diameter under 6.5m 1.5  2.0  2.3   m/day
 Sprayed Secondary Lining, Inclined Tunnels, diameter over 6.5m 1.0  1.5  1.9   m/day
 Sprayed Secondary Lining, Vertical Shafts, diameter under 6.5m 1.8  2.0  2.5   m/day
 Sprayed Secondary Lining, Vertical Shafts, diameter over 6.5m 2.2  2.5  3.1   m/day
 Sprayed Secondary Lining, Circulation Halls, diameter under 11.0m –   2.0  2.3   m/day
 Sprayed Secondary Lining, Intermediate Landing Tunnels with columns 1.7  2.0  2.1   m/day
 Sprayed Secondary Lining, Intermediate Landing Tunnels without columns 1.6  2.1  2.3   m/day
 Sprayed Secondary Lining, Tunnel Junctions –   0.2  0.3   m/day
 Insitu Permanent Lining, 12m bays, 350-400mm reinforced with PCV backing –   8.4  12.0   m/day
 Insitu Permanent Lining, extra over excavate/lining time to allow for permanent lining –   25.0  –    %
 Excavate and Line Cycle Time , Running Tunnels 3.2  4.0  4.9   m/day
 Excavate and Line Cycle Time, Station Access Adits 3.3  3.9  4.2   m/day
 Excavate and Line Cycle Time, Concourse Tunnels 2.2  2.5  2.7   m/day
 Excavate and Line Cycle Time, Escalator Tunnels 1.2  1.5  1.7   m/day

Kerbs & Footpaths

Prep for Kerbs and Slabs

Task / Description Slow   Ave   Fast    Units
 Concrete Road surfacing, Kerbs or Side Haunches –   0.4  –    m3/hr
 Concrete Road surfacing, 150mm thick –   12.5  –    m2/hr
 Concrete Road surfacing, 200mm thick –   7.7  –    m2/hr
 Concrete Road surfacing, 300mm thick –   6.7  –    m2/hr

 

Kerb and Concrete Slab Production Rates

Task / Description Slow   Ave   Fast    Units
 Concrete Slabs, laid on bedding, to slight falls 2.7  –   4.2   m2/hr
 Concrete Slabs, laid on bedding, to steep falls 2.3  –   2.7   m2/hr
 Concrete Slabs, laid in mortar, to slight falls 1.5  –   2.3   m2/hr
 Concrete Slabs, laid in mortar, to steep falls 1.1  –   1.5   m2/hr
 Concrete Slabs, laid on sand, to slight falls 1.7  –   2.8   m2/hr
 Concrete Slabs, laid on sand, to steep falls 1.6  –   1.9   m2/hr
 Cobble Stones, laid in mortar, no patterns –   0.3  –    m2/hr
 Cobble Stones, laid in mortar, with patterns –   0.2  –    m2/hr
 Artificial Stone, laid on sand, with patterns –   2.5  –    m2/hr
 Brick Paviors, in mortar, straight joints 0.9  1.3  1.9   m2/hr
 Brick Paviors, in mortar, herringbone pattern –   1.0  1.2   m2/hr
 Gravel Paths, including preparation of sub-base –   10.5  –    m2/hr
 Concrete Paths, 100mm thick, including preparation of sub-base –   2.5  –    m2/hr
 Concrete Kerbs or Channels, laid straight –   6.2  –    m/hr
 Concrete Kerbs or Channels, laid to 5m radius –   4.5  –    m/hr
 Concrete Kerbs or Channels, laid to 10m radius –   5.0  –    m/hr
 Concrete Kerbs or Channels, laid to 20m radius –   5.5  –    m/hr
 Stone/Granite Kerbs or Channels, laid straight –   3.5  –    m/hr
 Concrete Edging, laid straight –   7.7  –    m/hr
 Concrete Edging, laid to 5m radius –   5.8  –    m/hr
 Concrete Edging, laid to 10m radius –   6.2  –    m/hr
 Concrete Edging, laid to 20m radius –   7.1  –    m/hr
 Cutting and Fitting Ends, Concrete Kerbs –   6.6  –    no/hr
 Cutting and Fitting Ends, Channels –   5.8  –    no/hr
 Cutting and Fitting Ends, Concrete Edging –   8.3  –    no/hr

Site Clearance

Task / Description Slow   Ave   Fast    Units
 Shrubs and Bushes, dig up and removal –   25.0  38.0   m2/hr
 Turf, lifting and removal –   2.9  –    m2/hr
 Trees, small sizes and shrubs –   14.0  –    m2/hr
 Trees and Shrubs, 500mm – 900mm girth –   18.0  –    hrs/no
 Trees and Shrubs, 900mm – 1200mm girth –   22.0  –    hrs/no
 Trees and Shrubs, 1200mm – 1500mm girth –   26.0  –    hrs/no
 Hedges and Roots, 0.5-1.0m high –   0.9  –    m/hr
 Hedges and Roots, 1.0-1.5m high –   0.8  –    m/hr
 Hedges and Roots, 1.5-2.0m high –   0.6  –    m/hr